Puche Riart, Octavio and Mazadiego Martínez, Luis Felipe and Kindelán Echevarria, Paz
Moslem Mining in the Iberian Peninsula (Part II).
"CIM Magazine", v. 2
Gold was obtained in the alluvial deposits of rivers scattered through the Iberian Peninsula. Rivers like Segre (Lerida), Darro (Granada), and Tajo (near Lisbon), as mentioned by the chronicler Ahmed Arrazi, the geographer Al Edrisi, and the poet Ibn Hazim. Surface mining was also found in the area of Elvira (Granada) and probably in the village of Navas de Ricomalillo (Toledo), as can be inferred from its closeness to the Muslim mining area of Los Vascos where mining tools were discovered. In addition, gold was imported from Africa and was shipped to Malaga, which was the commercial centre of gold. According to a book on Lapidary, translated from Arabic to Spanish at the time of Alfonso X, we know that borax was used as flux in gold metallurgy. The metal obtained was employed in jewelry, gilding, and textiles, as well as to mint the so-called “dinares” in the Spanish Muslim period. According to Ibn Hawqual, minting—by virtue of its monopoly—was one of the main sources of income for the State