Development of Efficient Techniques for the Analysis and Design of Antennas in Dual-Reflectarray Configuration

Tienda Herrero, Carolina (2012). Development of Efficient Techniques for the Analysis and Design of Antennas in Dual-Reflectarray Configuration. Tesis (Doctoral), E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación (UPM).


Título: Development of Efficient Techniques for the Analysis and Design of Antennas in Dual-Reflectarray Configuration
  • Tienda Herrero, Carolina
  • Encinar Garcinuño, José Antonio
  • Arrebola Baena, Manuel
Tipo de Documento: Tesis (Doctoral)
Fecha: 2012
Escuela: E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación (UPM)
Departamento: Electromagnetismo y Teoría de Circuitos [hasta 2014]
Licencias Creative Commons: Reconocimiento - Sin obra derivada - No comercial

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This thesis contributes to the analysis and design of printed reflectarray antennas. The main part of the work is focused on the analysis of dual offset antennas comprising two reflectarray surfaces, one of them acts as sub-reflector and the second one acts as mainreflector. These configurations introduce additional complexity in several aspects respect to conventional dual offset reflectors, however they present a lot of degrees of freedom that can be used to improve the electrical performance of the antenna. The thesis is organized in four parts: the development of an analysis technique for dualreflectarray antennas, a preliminary validation of such methodology using equivalent reflector systems as reference antennas, a more rigorous validation of the software tool by manufacturing and testing a dual-reflectarray antenna demonstrator and the practical design of dual-reflectarray systems for some applications that show the potential of these kind of configurations to scan the beam and to generate contoured beams. In the first part, a general tool has been implemented to analyze high gain antennas which are constructed of two flat reflectarray structures. The classic reflectarray analysis based on MoM under local periodicity assumption is used for both sub and main reflectarrays, taking into account the incident angle on each reflectarray element. The incident field on the main reflectarray is computed taking into account the field radiated by all the elements on the sub-reflectarray.. Two approaches have been developed, one which employs a simple approximation to reduce the computer run time, and the other which does not, but offers in many cases, improved accuracy. The approximation is based on computing the reflected field on each element on the main reflectarray only once for all the fields radiated by the sub-reflectarray elements, assuming that the response will be the same because the only difference is a small variation on the angle of incidence. This approximation is very accurate when the reflectarray elements on the main reflectarray show a relatively small sensitivity to the angle of incidence. An extension of the analysis technique has been implemented to study dual-reflectarray antennas comprising a main reflectarray printed on a parabolic surface, or in general in a curved surface. In many applications of dual-reflectarray configurations, the reflectarray elements are in the near field of the feed-horn. To consider the near field radiated by the horn, the incident field on each reflectarray element is computed using a spherical mode expansion. In this region, the angles of incidence are moderately wide, and they are considered in the analysis of the reflectarray to better calculate the actual incident field on the sub-reflectarray elements. This technique increases the accuracy for the prediction of co- and cross-polar patterns and antenna gain respect to the case of using ideal feed models. In the second part, as a preliminary validation, the proposed analysis method has been used to design a dual-reflectarray antenna that emulates previous dual-reflector antennas in Ku and W-bands including a reflectarray as subreflector. The results for the dualreflectarray antenna compare very well with those of the parabolic reflector and reflectarray subreflector; radiation patterns, antenna gain and efficiency are practically the same when the main parabolic reflector is substituted by a flat reflectarray. The results show that the gain is only reduced by a few tenths of a dB as a result of the ohmic losses in the reflectarray. The phase adjustment on two surfaces provided by the dual-reflectarray configuration can be used to improve the antenna performance in some applications requiring multiple beams, beam scanning or shaped beams. Third, a very challenging dual-reflectarray antenna demonstrator has been designed, manufactured and tested for a more rigorous validation of the analysis technique presented. The proposed antenna configuration has the feed, the sub-reflectarray and the main-reflectarray in the near field one to each other, so that the conventional far field approximations are not suitable for the analysis of such antenna. This geometry is used as benchmarking for the proposed analysis tool in very stringent conditions. Some aspects of the proposed analysis technique that allow improving the accuracy of the analysis are also discussed. These improvements include a novel method to reduce the inherent cross polarization which is introduced mainly from grounded patch arrays. It has been checked that cross polarization in offset reflectarrays can be significantly reduced by properly adjusting the patch dimensions in the reflectarray in order to produce an overall cancellation of the cross-polarization. The dimensions of the patches are adjusted in order not only to provide the required phase-distribution to shape the beam, but also to exploit the crosses by zero of the cross-polarization components. The last part of the thesis deals with direct applications of the technique described. The technique presented is directly applicable to the design of contoured beam antennas for DBS applications, where the requirements of cross-polarisation are very stringent. The beam shaping is achieved by synthesithing the phase distribution on the main reflectarray while the sub-reflectarray emulates an equivalent hyperbolic subreflector. Dual-reflectarray antennas present also the ability to scan the beam over small angles about boresight. Two possible architectures for a Ku-band antenna are also described based on a dual planar reflectarray configuration that provides electronic beam scanning in a limited angular range. In the first architecture, the beam scanning is achieved by introducing a phase-control in the elements of the sub-reflectarray and the mainreflectarray is passive. A second alternative is also studied, in which the beam scanning is produced using 1-bit control on the main reflectarray, while a passive subreflectarray is designed to provide a large focal distance within a compact configuration. The system aims to develop a solution for bi-directional satellite links for emergency communications. In both proposed architectures, the objective is to provide a compact optics and simplicity to be folded and deployed.

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Depositado por: Memoria Investigacion
Depositado el: 26 Abr 2012 10:22
Ultima Modificación: 20 Abr 2016 18:57
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