Rodriguez Garcia, Iker
Calculation Methodology and Fabrication Procedures for Particle Accelerator Strip-Line Kickers: Application to the CTF3 Combiner Ring Extraction Kicker and TL2 Tail Clippers.
Thesis (Doctoral), E.T.S.I. Industriales (UPM).
A particle accelerator is any device that, using electromagnetic fields, is able to communicate energy to charged particles (typically electrons or ionized atoms), accelerating and/or energizing them up to the required level for its purpose. The applications of particle accelerators are countless, beginning in a common TV CRT, passing through medical X-ray devices, and ending in large ion colliders utilized to find the smallest details of the matter. Among the other engineering applications, the ion implantation devices to obtain better semiconductors and materials of amazing properties are included. Materials supporting irradiation for future nuclear fusion plants are also benefited from particle accelerators.
There are many devices in a particle accelerator required for its correct operation. The most important are the particle sources, the guiding, focalizing and correcting magnets, the radiofrequency accelerating cavities, the fast deflection devices, the beam diagnostic mechanisms and the particle detectors.
Most of the fast particle deflection devices have been built historically by using copper coils and ferrite cores which could effectuate a relatively fast magnetic deflection, but needed large voltages and currents to counteract the high coil inductance in a response in the microseconds range. Various beam stability considerations and the new range of energies and sizes of present time accelerators and their rings require new devices featuring an improved wakefield behaviour and faster response (in the nanoseconds range). This can only be achieved by an electromagnetic deflection device based on a transmission line.
The electromagnetic deflection device (strip-line kicker) produces a transverse displacement on the particle beam travelling close to the speed of light, in order to extract the particles to another experiment or to inject them into a different accelerator. The deflection is carried out by the means of two short, opposite phase pulses. The diversion of the particles is exerted by the integrated Lorentz force of the electromagnetic field travelling along the kicker.
This Thesis deals with a detailed calculation, manufacturing and test methodology for strip-line kicker devices. The methodology is then applied to two real cases which are fully designed, built, tested and finally installed in the CTF3 accelerator facility at CERN (Geneva). Analytical and numerical calculations, both in 2D and 3D, are detailed starting from the basic specifications in order to obtain a conceptual design. Time domain and frequency domain calculations are developed in the process using different FDM and FEM codes. The following concepts among others are analyzed: scattering parameters, resonating high order modes, the wakefields, etc. Several contributions are presented in the calculation process dealing specifically with strip-line kicker devices fed by electromagnetic pulses.
Materials and components typically used for the fabrication of these devices are analyzed in the manufacturing section. Mechanical supports and connexions of electrodes are also detailed, presenting some interesting contributions on these concepts. The electromagnetic and vacuum tests are then analyzed. These tests are required to ensure that the manufactured devices fulfil the specifications.
Finally, and only from the analytical point of view, the strip-line kickers are studied together with a pulsed power supply based on solid state power switches (MOSFETs). The solid state technology applied to pulsed power supplies is introduced and several circuit topologies are modelled and simulated to obtain fast and good flat-top pulses.