Pinto Heredero, Antonio
Uso de DES y RANS no estacionario para la simulación del flujo alrededor de una carena Wigley - Use of Unsteady RANS and DES to simulate flows around a Wigley Hull).
Thesis (Doctoral), E.T.S.I. Navales (UPM).
Computer Fluid Dynamics tools have already become a valuable instrument for Naval Architects during the ship design process, thanks to their accuracy and the available computer power. Unfortunately, the development of RANSE codes, generally used when viscous effects play a major role in the flow, has not reached a mature stage, being the accuracy of the turbulence models and the free surface representation the most important sources of uncertainty. Another level of uncertainty is added when the simulations are carried out for unsteady flows, as those generally studied in seakeeping and maneuvering analysis and URANS equations solvers are used. Present work shows the applicability and the benefits derived from the use of new approaches for the turbulence modeling (Detached Eddy Simulation) and the free surface representation (Level Set) on the URANS equations solver CFDSHIP-Iowa. Compared to URANS, DES is expected to predict much broader frequency contents and behave better in flows where boundary layer separation plays a major role. Level Set methods are able to capture very complex free surface geometries, including breaking and overturning waves. The performance of these improvements is tested in set of fairly complex flows, generated by a Wigley hull at pure drift motion, with drift angle ranging from 10 to 60 degrees and at several Froude numbers to study the impact of its variation. Quantitative verification and validation are performed with the obtained results to guarantee their accuracy. The results show the capability of the CFDSHIP-Iowa code to carry out time-accurate simulations of complex flows of extreme unsteady ship maneuvers. The Level Set method is able to capture very complex geometries of the free surface and the use of DES in unsteady simulations highly improves the results obtained. Vortical structures and instabilities as a function of the drift angle and Fr are qualitatively identified. Overall analysis of the flow pattern shows a strong correlation between the vortical structures and free surface wave pattern. Karman-like vortex shedding is identified and the scaled St agrees well with the universal St value. Tip vortices are identified and the associated helical instabilities are analyzed. St using the hull length decreases with the increase of the distance along the vortex core (x), which is similar to results from other simulations. However, St scaled using distance along the vortex cores shows strong oscillations compared to almost constants for those previous simulations. The difference may be caused by the effect of the free-surface, grid resolution, and interaction between the tip vortex and other vortical structures, which needs further investigations. This study is exploratory in the sense that finer grids are desirable and experimental data is lacking for large α, especially for the local flow. More recently, high performance computational capability of CFDSHIP-Iowa V4 has been improved such that large scale computations are possible. DES for DTMB 5415 with bilge keels at α = 20º were conducted using three grids with 10M, 48M and 250M points. DES analysis for flows around KVLCC2 at α = 30º is analyzed using a 13M grid and compared with the results of DES on the 1.6M grid by. Both studies are consistent with what was concluded on grid resolution herein since dominant frequencies for shear-layer, Karman-like, horse-shoe and helical instabilities only show marginal variation on grid refinement. The penalties of using coarse grids are smaller frequency amplitude and less resolved TKE. Therefore finer grids should be used to improve V&V for resolving most of the active turbulent scales for all different Fr and α, which hopefully can be compared with additional EFD data for large α when it becomes available.