Connor, D.J. and Gómez-del-Campo, Maria
Simulation of oil productivity and quality of N-S oriented olive hedgerow orchards in response to structure and interception of radiation.
"Scientia Horticulturae", v. 150
Simulations of oil yield and quality are presented for N–S oriented, hedgerow olive orchards of a range of structures (viz. canopy depth, canopy width, canopy slope and row spacing) using responses of yield and quality parameters to solar irradiance on canopy walls measured in a range of orchards, cv. Arbequina, in Spain. Results reveal that orchard yield of hedgerows of rectangular shape reaches a maximum when canopy depth equals alley width (row spacing−canopy width) and decreases at wider spacing, and/or with wider canopies, as the length of productive row decreases per unit area. Maximum yields for 4-m deep canopies were 2885 kg ha−1 at 1-m width and 5-m row spacing, 2400 kg ha−1 at 2-m width and 6-m spacing, and 2050 kg ha−1 at 3-m width and 7-m spacing. Illumination of canopies can be increased by applying slopes to form rhomboidal hedgerows. Substantial yield advantage can be achieved, especially for wide hedgerows, partly by closer row spacing that increases row length per unit area. By comparison, responses to latitude in the range 30–40◦ are small and do not warrant different row spacing. Oil quality parameters also respond to orchard structure. Responses are presented for oleic and palmitic acid, stability, and maturity index. Oleic acid content declines as alley spacing increases and is smaller, shallow than in wide, deep canopies. Palmitic acid content, stability, and maturity index increase with row alley spacing and are greater in narrow, shallow than in wide, deep canopies.