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Extreme flood abatement in large dams with fixed-crest spillways
Sordo Ward, Alvaro and Garrote de Marcos, Luis and Martín Carrasco, Francisco Javier and Bejarano Carrión, María Dolores
Extreme flood abatement in large dams with fixed-crest spillways.
"Journal of Hydrology", v. 466-46
This study characterises the abatement effect of large dams with fixed-crest spillways under extreme design flood conditions. In contrast to previous studies using specific hydrographs for flow into the reservoir and simplifications to obtain analytical solutions, an automated tool was designed for calculations based on a Monte Carlo simulation environment, which integrates models that represent the different physical processes in watersheds with areas of 150?2000 km2. The tool was applied to 21 sites that were uniformly distributed throughout continental Spain, with 105 fixed-crest dam configurations. This tool allowed a set of hydrographs to be obtained as an approximation for the hydrological forcing of a dam and the characterisation of the response of the dam to this forcing. For all cases studied, we obtained a strong linear correlation between the peak flow entering the reservoir and the peak flow discharged by the dam, and a simple general procedure was proposed to characterise the peak-flow attenuation behaviour of the reservoir. Additionally, two dimensionless coefficients were defined to relate the variables governing both the generation of the flood and its abatement in the reservoir. Using these coefficients, a model was defined to allow for the estimation of the flood abatement effect of a reservoir based on the available information. This model should be useful in the hydrological design of spillways and the evaluation of the hydrological safety of dams. Finally, the proposed procedure and model were evaluated and representative applications were presented
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