Aceituno Aceituno, Pedro and Cea Moure, Ramiro and Casado Sánchez, José Luis
Políticas de esfuerzo combinado económico-laboral en la retención y atracción del conocimiento científico: un estudio del caso español.
"Dirección y Organización, DYO", v. 49
El objetivo de este trabajo es la aportación de un caso que evidencie la importancia de realizar esfuerzos tanto en el terreno económico como en el laboral para conseguir una adecuada retención y atracción del conocimiento científico. Para ello, se analizan los datos de un estudio que destaca estas cuestiones para un país como España, que necesita urgentemente mejorar su balance de movilidad investigadora. Los resultados confirman la importancia de la aplicación de estas medidas y las debilidades que presenta en este tipo de políticas el sistema nacional de investigación, desarrollo e innovación (I+D+i). Abstract: The goal of this paper is to disclose a case study which highlights the impor tance of realising effor ts at an economic and labour scale in order to reach an adequate retention and attraction of scientific knowledge. Although science has evolved during different periods through the flow of mankind and ideas, studies about international mobility of scientists are recent in time. It started mid XXth century with the brain drain phenomenon. To alleviate the loss of scientists, countries have disclosed different politics. Some countries like Singapore, Southern Korea, India and China have been successful in bringing scientists back home. Those countries have made huge effor ts in human resources investments and scientific infrastructures, so as to enforce their national R&D&I systems. Despite such experiences and despite the increasement in terms of evidences related with international scientific mobility, few studies and figures have been disclosed. The goal of this current work is to disclose data, which backs up the liability of such kind of politics that combine effor ts in economic and labour terms. For that reason, data has been analyzed from a study which highlights these key aspects for a country like Spain and which recently established a wide range of politics in order to attract scientists. Despite the increasement of financial resources, such politics have turned out unable to reach a proper balance in terms of mobility research. Such data as well as it analysis comes from the development of an annual survey to Spanish scientists during the period 2008- 2011. Based on sample data and analysis an expectations index for the coming year has been constructed. This compares the level of confidence which related the support and prestige of their national R&D&I systems in which they operate. Two groups where surveyed: young researchers which currently work in Spain and as a group are more likely to go working abroad and Spanish scientists who are currently working abroad. Samples were obtained for young researchers were the following: 2008 (217), 2009 (270), 2010 (390) and 2011 (610). In the case of Spanish scientists abroad, the following data were obtained: 2008 (218), 2009 (250), 2010 (241) and 2011 (167). Both groups assume simple random sampling, with a level of confidence of 95%. The results obtained confirm the importance of this combined effor t of labor and economic policies which presents weaknesses of Spanish national R&D&I systems and its application, so that Spain becomes a pole of excellence in terms of attraction and retention of scientific knowledge.