Herrero Gómez, Raúl
Simulación de componentes no estacionarias de viento en orografías complejas.
Proyecto Fin de Carrera / Trabajo Fin de Grado, E.T.S.I. Aeronáuticos (UPM), Madrid.
Realistic operation of helicopter flight simulators in complex topographies (such as urban environments) requires appropriate prediction of the incoming wind, and this prediction should be made in real time. Unfortunately, the wind topology around complex topographies shows time-dependent, fully nonlinear, turbulent patterns (i.e., wakes) whose simulation cannot be made using computationally inexpensive tools based on corrected potential approximations. Instead, the full Navier-Stokes plus some kind of turbulent modeling is necessary, which is quite computationally expensive. The complete unsteady flow depends on two parameters, namely the velocity and orientation of the free stream flow. The aim of this MSc thesis is to develop a methodology for the real time simulation of these complex flows. For simplicity, the flow around a single building (20 mx20 m cross section and 100 m height) is considered, with free stream velocity in the range 5-25 m/s. Because of the square cross section, the problem shows two reflection symmetries, which allows for restricting the orientations to the range 0° < a. < 45°. The methodology includes an offline preprocess and the online operation. The preprocess consists in three steps: An appropriate, unstructured mesh is selected in which the flow is sim¬ulated using OpenFOAM, and this is done for 33 combinations of 3 free stream intensities and 11 orientations. For each of these, the simulation proceeds for a sufficiently large time as to eliminate transients. This step is quite computationally expensive. Each flow field is post-processed using a combination of proper orthogonal decomposition, fast Fourier transform, and a convenient optimization tool, which identifies the relevant frequencies (namely, both the basic frequencies and their harmonics) and modes in the computational mesh. This combination includes several new ingredients to filter errors out and identify the relevant spatio-temporal patterns. Note that, in principle, the basic frequencies depend on both the intensity and the orientation of the free stream flow. The outcome of this step is a set of modes (vectors containing the three velocity components at all mesh points) for the various Fourier components, intensities, and orientations, which can be organized as a third order tensor. This step is fairly computationally inexpensive. The above mentioned tensor is treated using a combination of truncated high order singular value, decomposition and appropriate one-dimensional interpolation (as in Lorente, Velazquez, Vega, J. Aircraft, 45 (2008) 1779-1788). The outcome is a tensor representation of both the relevant fre¬quencies and the associated Fourier modes for a given pair of values of the free stream flow intensity and orientation. This step is fairly compu¬tationally inexpensive. The online, operation requires just reconstructing the time-dependent flow field from its Fourier representation, which is extremely computationally inex¬pensive. The whole method is quite robust.