Preliminary mineralogy and ore petrology of the intermediate-sulfidation pallancata deposit, Ayacucho, Peru

Gamarra-Urrunaga, Jorge E. and Castroviejo Bolibar, Ricardo and Bernhardt, Heinz-Jurgen (2013). Preliminary mineralogy and ore petrology of the intermediate-sulfidation pallancata deposit, Ayacucho, Peru. "Canadian mineralogist", v. 51 (n. 1); pp. 67-91. ISSN 0008-4476. https://doi.org/10.3749/canmin.51.1.67.

Description

Title: Preliminary mineralogy and ore petrology of the intermediate-sulfidation pallancata deposit, Ayacucho, Peru
Author/s:
  • Gamarra-Urrunaga, Jorge E.
  • Castroviejo Bolibar, Ricardo
  • Bernhardt, Heinz-Jurgen
Item Type: Article
Título de Revista/Publicación: Canadian mineralogist
Date: 2013
ISSN: 0008-4476
Volume: 51
Subjects:
Faculty: E.T.S.I. Minas (UPM)
Department: Ingeniería Geológica [hasta 2014]
Creative Commons Licenses: Recognition - No derivative works - Non commercial

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Abstract

Se investiga la compleja mineralogía del Yacimiento de Pallancata (6º productor de plata del mundo) y se establecen las condiciones de formación (P.T) basadas en la petrología de las menas comparada con los datos de mineralogía experimental y en la petrografía y microtermometría de inclusiones fluídas en la ganga silicatada, resultando un depósito típicamente caracterizado como epitermal de sulfuración intermedia.ABSTRACT:Pallancata is a world-class intermediate-sulfidation epithermal deposit, hosted by upper Miocene volcanics of the south-central Peruvian Andes in a sinuous N70ºW, ∼75º SW strike-slip structure, with wide (up to 35 m) pull-apart dilation zones related to bends of the vein strike. The structural evolution of the vein from earlier brecciation to later open space infill resembles the Shila Paula district (Chauvet et al. 2006). Fluid inclusion petrography and microthermometry show that ore deposition is related to protracted boiling of very diluted, mainly meteoric fluids, starting at 250–260 ºC, under ∼300 m hydrostatic head. The mineralogical-petrological study reveals a complex sequence of mineralization (eight stages) and mineral reactions consistent with Ag2S enrichment or Sb2S3 depletion, or both, during cooling over the temperature range 250–200 ºC: pyrite, sphalerite, galena, miargyrite, pyrargyrite-proustite, chalcopyrite, polybasite-pearceite, argentite (now acanthite), and Au–Ag alloy (“electrum”). This Ag2S enrichment and Sb2S3depletion during cooling may be explained by decay of a Ag-rich galena precursor at deeper levels (Pb2S2–AgSbS2 solid solution), which rapidly becomes unstable with decreasing temperature, producing residual (stoichiometric) PbS and more mobile Ag and Sb sulfide phases, which migrated upward and laterally away from the thermal core of the system. The core is still undisclosed by mining works, but the available geochemical evidence (logAg/log Pb ratios decreasing at depth) is consistent with this interpretation, implying a deeper potential resource. Data from sulfide geothermometry, based on mineral equilibria, document the thermal evolution of the system below 200 ºC (stephanite, uytenbogaardtite, jalpaite, stromeyerite, mckinstryite, among others). The end of the most productive stages (3, 4, and 5) is marked by the precipitation of stephanite at temperatures below 197 ± 5 ºC, but precipitation of residual silver continues through the waning stages of the hydrothermal system down to <93.3 ºC (stromeyerite) or in a supergene redistribution (stage 8, acanthite II).

More information

Item ID: 26477
DC Identifier: http://oa.upm.es/26477/
OAI Identifier: oai:oa.upm.es:26477
DOI: 10.3749/canmin.51.1.67
Official URL: http://canmin.geoscienceworld.org/content/51/1/67.abstract
Deposited by: Memoria Investigacion
Deposited on: 23 May 2014 08:35
Last Modified: 29 Jan 2015 13:27
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