Mateos, I. and Ranilla, J. M. and Tejido, M. L. and Saro, C. and Kamel, C. and Carro Travieso, María Dolores
The influence of diet on the effectiveness of garlic oil and cinnamaldehyde to manipulate in vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production..
"Animal Production Science", v. 53
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing doses [0 (control: CON), 20, 60, 180 and 540 mg/L incubation medium] of garlic oil (GO) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) on in vitro ruminal fermentation of two diets. Batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms were inoculated with ruminal fluid from four sheep fed a medium-concentrate diet (MC; 50 : 50 alfalfa hay : concentrate) or four sheep fed a high-concentrate diet (HC; 15 : 85 barley straw : concentrate). Diets MC and HC were representative of those fed to dairy and fattening ruminants, respectively. Samples of each diet were used as incubation substrates for the corresponding inoculum, and the incubation was repeated on 4 different days (four replicates per experimental treatment). There were GO × diet-type and CIN × diet-type interactions (P < 0.001–0.05) for many of the parameters determined, indicating different effects of both oils depending on the diet type. In general, effects of GO were more pronounced for MC compared with HC diet. Supplementation of GO did not affect (P > 0.05) total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production at any dose. For MC diet, GO at 60, 180 and 540 mg/L decreased (P < 0.05) molar proportion of acetate (608, 569 and 547 mmol/mol total VFA, respectively), and increased (P < 0.05) propionate proportion (233, 256 and 268 mmol/mol total VFA, respectively), compared with CON values (629 and 215 mmol/mol total VFA for acetate and propionate, respectively). A minimum dose of 180 mg of GO/L was required to produce similar modifications in acetate and propionate proportions with HC diet, but no effects (P > 0.05) on butyrate proportion were detected. Methane/VFA ratio was reduced (P < 0.05) by GO at 60, 180 and 540 mg/L for MC diet (0.23, 0.16 and 0.10 mol/mol, respectively), and by GO at 20, 60, 180 and 540 mg/L for HC diet (0.19, 0.19, 0.16 and 0.08 mol/mol, respectively), compared with CON (0.26 and 0.21 mol/mol for MC and HC diets, respectively). No effects (P = 0.16–0.85) of GO on final pH and concentrations of NH3-N and lactate were detected. For both diet types, the highest CIN dose decreased (P < 0.05) production of total VFA, gas and methane, which would indicate an inhibition of fermentation. Compared with CON, CIN at 180 mg/L increased (P < 0.05) acetate proportion for the MC (629 and 644 mmol/mol total VFA for CON and CIN, respectively) and HC (525 and 540 mmol/mol total VFA, respectively) diets, without affecting the proportions of any other VFA or total VFA production. Whereas for MC diet CIN at 60 and 180 mg/L decreased (P < 0.05) NH3-N concentrations compared with CON, only a trend (P < 0.10) was observed for CIN at 180 mg/L with the HC diet. Supplementation of CIN up to 180 mg/L did not affect (P = 0.18–0.99) lactate concentrations and production of gas and methane for any diet. The results show that effectiveness of GO and CIN to modify ruminal fermentation may depend on diet type, which would have practical implications if they are confirmed in vivo.