Processing of ultra-wideband low-frequency signals, for application in Foliage Penetration (FOPEN) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems

García Gómez, Francisco Javier (2014). Processing of ultra-wideband low-frequency signals, for application in Foliage Penetration (FOPEN) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. Proyecto Fin de Carrera / Trabajo Fin de Grado, E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación (UPM).

Descripción

Título: Processing of ultra-wideband low-frequency signals, for application in Foliage Penetration (FOPEN) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems
Autor/es:
  • García Gómez, Francisco Javier
Director/es:
  • Burgos García, Mateo
Tipo de Documento: Proyecto Fin de Carrera/Grado
Fecha: 13 Junio 2014
Materias:
Palabras Clave Informales: radar, FOPEN, SAR, UWB, stretch processing, deramp, RMA, notch, interference, RFI
Escuela: E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación (UPM)
Departamento: Señales, Sistemas y Radiocomunicaciones
Licencias Creative Commons: Reconocimiento - Sin obra derivada - No comercial

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Resumen

Foliage Penetration (FOPEN) radar systems were introduced in 1960, and have been constantly improved by several organizations since that time. The use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) approaches for this application has important advantages, due to the need for high resolution in two dimensions. The design of this type of systems, however, includes some complications that are not present in standard SAR systems. FOPEN SAR systems need to operate with a low central frequency (VHF or UHF bands) in order to be able to penetrate the foliage. High bandwidth is also required to obtain high resolution. Due to the low central frequency, large integration angles are required during SAR image formation, and therefore the Range Migration Algorithm (RMA) is used. This project thesis identifies the three main complications that arise due to these requirements. First, a high fractional bandwidth makes narrowband propagation models no longer valid. Second, the VHF and UHF bands are used by many communications systems. The transmitted signal spectrum needs to be notched to avoid interfering them. Third, those communications systems cause Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) on the received signal. The thesis carries out a thorough analysis of the three problems, their degrading effects and possible solutions to compensate them. The UWB model is applied to the SAR signal, and the degradation induced by it is derived. The result is tested through simulation of both a single pulse stretch processor and the complete RMA image formation. Both methods show that the degradation is negligible, and therefore the UWB propagation effect does not need compensation. A technique is derived to design a notched transmitted signal. Then, its effect on the SAR image formation is evaluated analytically. It is shown that the stretch processor introduces a processing gain that reduces the degrading effects of the notches. The remaining degrading effect after processing gain is assessed through simulation, and an experimental graph of degradation as a function of percentage of nulled frequencies is obtained. The RFI is characterized and its effect on the SAR processor is derived. Once again, a processing gain is found to be introduced by the receiver. As the RFI power can be much higher than that of the desired signal, an algorithm is proposed to remove the RFI from the received signal before RMA processing. This algorithm is a modification of the Chirp Least Squares Algorithm (CLSA) explained in [4], which adapts it to deramped signals. The algorithm is derived analytically and then its performance is evaluated through simulation, showing that it is effective in removing the RFI and reducing the degradation caused by both RFI and notching. Finally, conclusions are drawn as to the importance of each one of the problems in SAR system design.

Más información

ID de Registro: 30700
Identificador DC: http://oa.upm.es/30700/
Identificador OAI: oai:oa.upm.es:30700
Depositado por: Francisco Javier Garcia Gomez
Depositado el: 25 Ago 2014 07:22
Ultima Modificación: 22 Abr 2016 00:58
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