Fraile Ardanuy, José Jesús
Reducing the impact of EV charging on the electric grid.
In: "DATA SIM (DATA Science for SIMulating the era of the electric vehicles)", 15/07/2014 - 15/07/2014, Hasselt, Belgium. pp. 1-85.
One of the main objectives of European Commission related to climate and energy is the well-known 20-20-20 targets to be achieved in 2020: Europe has to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of at least 20% below 1990 levels, 20% of EU energy consumption has to come from renewable resources and, finally, a 20% reduction in primary energy use compared with projected levels, has to be achieved by improving energy efficiency. In order to reach these objectives, it is necessary to reduce the overall emissions, mainly in transport (reducing CO2, NOx and other pollutants), and to increase the penetration of the intermittent renewable energy. A high deployment of battery electric (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), with a low-cost source of energy storage, could help to achieve both targets. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) use a combination of a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) with one (or more) electric motor. There are different grades of hybridation from micro-hybrids with start-stop capability, mild hybrids (with kinetic energy recovery), medium hybrids (mild hybrids plus energy assist) and full hybrids (medium hybrids plus electric launch capability). These last types of vehicles use a typical battery capacity around 1-2 kWh. Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) use larger battery capacities to achieve limited electric-only driving range. These vehicles are charged by on-board electricity generation or either plugging into electric outlets. Typical battery capacity is around 10 kWh. Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are only driven by electric power and their typical battery capacity is around 15-20 kWh. One type of PHEV, the Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV), operates as a BEV until its plug-in battery capacity is depleted; at which point its gasoline engine powers an electric generator to extend the vehicle's range. The charging of PHEVs (including EREVs) and BEVs will have different impacts to the electric grid, depending on the number of vehicles and the start time for charging. Initially, the lecture will start analyzing the electrical power requirements for charging PHEVs-BEVs in Flanders region (Belgium) under different charging scenarios. Secondly and based on an activity-based microsimulation mobility model, an efficient method to reduce this impact will be presented.