Martín Soldevilla, María Jesús and Martín Hidalgo, Melva and Negro Valdecantos, Vicente and López Gutiérrez, José Santos and Aberturas, Paloma
Improvement of theoretical storm characterization for different climate conditions.
"Coastal Engineering", v. 96
The different theoretical models related with storm wave characterization focus on determining the significant wave height of the peak storm, the mean period and, usually assuming a triangle storm shape, their duration. In some cases, the main direction is also considered. Nevertheless, definition of the whole storm history, including the variation of the main random variables during the storm cycle is not taken into consideration. The representativeness of the proposed storm models, analysed in a recent study using an empirical maximum energy flux time dependent function shows that the behaviour of the different storm models is extremely dependent on the climatic characteristics of the project area. Moreover, there are no theoretical models able to adequately reproduce storm history evolution of the sea states characterized by important swell components. To overcome this shortcoming, several theoretical storm shapes are investigated taking into consideration the bases of the three best theoretical storm models, the Equivalent Magnitude Storm (EMS), the Equivalent Number of Waves Storm (ENWS) and the Equivalent Duration Storm (EDS) models. To analyse the representativeness of the new storm shape, the aforementioned maximum energy flux formulation and a wave overtopping discharge structure function are used. With the empirical energy flux formulation, correctness of the different approaches is focussed on the progressive hydraulic stability loss of the main armour layer caused by real and theoretical storms. For the overtopping structure equation, the total volume of discharge is considered. In all cases, the results obtained highlight the greater representativeness of the triangular EMS model for sea waves and the trapezoidal (nonparallel sides) EMS model for waves with a higher degree of wave development. Taking into account the increase in offshore and shallow water wind turbines, maritime transport and deep vertical breakwaters, the maximum wave height of the whole storm history and that corresponding to each sea state belonging to its cycle's evolution is also considered. The procedure considers the information usually available for extreme waves' characterization. Extrapolations of the maximum wave height of the selected storms have also been considered. The 4th order statistics of the sea state belonging to the real and theoretical storm have been estimated to complete the statistical analysis of individual wave height