Paul Nelson y La Maison Suspendue : Creando la Matriz del Hombre

Escalonilla Morales, Javier (2017). Paul Nelson y La Maison Suspendue : Creando la Matriz del Hombre. Thesis (Doctoral), E.T.S. Arquitectura (UPM). https://doi.org/10.20868/UPM.thesis.54888.

Description

Title: Paul Nelson y La Maison Suspendue : Creando la Matriz del Hombre
Author/s:
  • Escalonilla Morales, Javier
Contributor/s:
  • Muñoz Jiménez, María Teresa
Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Date: 2017
Subjects:
Faculty: E.T.S. Arquitectura (UPM)
Department: Proyectos Arquitectónicos [hasta 2014]
Creative Commons Licenses: Recognition - No derivative works - Non commercial

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Abstract

Esta tesis se centra en el manifiesto teórico de vivienda La Maison Suspendue, proyectado entre 1935 y 1939 por Paul Nelson (Chicago 1895-Marsella 1979). El objetivo es verificar si Nelson utilizó la creación del espacio individual en su arquitectura residencial, como vía experimental para humanizar su obra pública. El deseo de Nelson por construir una sociedad moderna se reflejó en su participación como piloto aliado en la Gran Guerra. Tras esta experiencia, renunció a su educación en Princeton y estudió arquitectura en Beaux-Arts como liberación personal. Sus viajes transatlánticos le convirtieron en testigo y embajador de la evolución de la arquitectura moderna. Toda su actividad, docente o proyectista, estuvo marcada por la investigación y su evolución como persona y arquitecto contó con el apoyo de sus dos mujeres, Francine Le Coeur y Maddalena Giannatassio. Nelson adaptó la influencia del orden estructural de su maestro Auguste Perret, el orden espacial de Le Corbusier, el valor de la estandarización de Richard Buckminster Fuller y la imagen industrial de Pierre Chareau para indagar en su búsqueda del espacio individual. Y desarrolló un sistema de trabajo interdisciplinar con ingenieros, sociólogos, economistas y artistas como Georges Braque, Jean Hélion, Fernand Léger y Alexander Calder que le permitió sistematizar un método deductivo de la forma, resultado de una síntesis entre la técnica y el humanismo. La Maison Suspendue era un marco mínimo que servía de refugio y cubría todas las necesidades de una sociedad cambiante, incluido el retiro. Para ello se pensó en un “espacio inútil”, sin uso predeterminado, capaz de incidir en el desarrollo intelectual del habitante. Se proyectaron dos pórticos de los que se colgó la cubierta y la planta superior; la parte mecánica se redujo al mínimo y se liberó un espacio vacío, continuo y fluido, en el que unas celdas individuales y desmontables estaban suspendidas sobre el lugar de reuniones. Las maquetas, que contenían obras de Fernand Léger, Joan Miró, Alexander Calder y Jean Arp, sirvieron para difundir la investigación y ensayar los efectos espaciales, constructivos y artísticos. En La Maison Suspendue se proyectaron soluciones abiertas, que posteriormente se traspusieron al resto de su obra, especialmente a sus hospitales. Su intención era liberar al hombre de cualquier programa funcional impuesto por la arquitectura y, para lograrlo, no se buscó la disolución de la misma, sino que se trabajó para materializar unos espacios individuales en su interior que la hicieran más cercana. ----------ABSTRACT---------- This thesis focuses on the theoretical manifest of The Suspended House, a dwelling designed between 1935 and 1939 by Paul Nelson (Chicago 1895-Marseille 1979). The objective is to verify whether Nelson used the creation of individual space in his residential Architecture, as an experimental way to humanize his public work. His desire of building a modern society was manifested in his decision to participate as an Allied Pilot during The Great War. Following this experience, he waived his education at Princeton and instead he began his Architecture studies at Beaux- Arts as personal liberation. Thanks to his transatlantic voyages, he became a witness and an ambassador of modern Architecture. All his activity, as a Professor or a designer, was defined by research; and his development as a person and as an architect was supported by his two wives, Francine Le Coeur y Maddalena Giannatassio. Nelson adapted diverse influences into his search for the individual space: the structural order from his Professor Auguste Perret, Le Corbusier´s spatial order, the values of standardization of Richard Buckminster Fuller and the industrial image created by Pierre Chareau. And he developed a system of interdisciplinary work with engineers, sociologists, economists and artists such as Georges Braque, Jean Hélion, Fernand Léger and Alexander Calder which allowed him to systematize a deductive method about Shape, this method was the result of a synthesis between technique and humanism. The Suspended House was a minimum framework that served as a refuge and it met all needs of a changing society, including the need for isolation. Because of this, it was thought about an “useless space”, which had no predetermined usage, it was capable of influencing the intellectual development of inhabitant. It was designed two porticos from which roof and upper floor were hung; the mechanical area was reduced to a minimum, liberating an empty space, continuous and fluid, in which individual and detachable cells were suspended over a large meeting room. The models containing works by Fernand Léger, Joan Miró, Alexander Calder and Jean Arp, they were used to spread his research and to test spatial, constructive and artistic effects. In the Suspended House, open solutions were designed and later they were transplanted to the rest of his work, and specially in his hospitals. His intention was to free men of any functional programme imposed by Architecture, not by the dissolution of his Architecture itself but by materializing individual interior spaces, that would make it a more intimate place for men.

More information

Item ID: 54888
DC Identifier: http://oa.upm.es/54888/
OAI Identifier: oai:oa.upm.es:54888
DOI: 10.20868/UPM.thesis.54888
Deposited by: Archivo Digital UPM 2
Deposited on: 07 May 2019 10:33
Last Modified: 06 Nov 2019 23:30
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