Mendoza Novelo, Birzabit and Avila, Eva and Cauich Rodríguez, Juan V. and Jorge Herrero, Eduardo and Rojo Pérez, Francisco Javier and Guinea Tortuero, Gustavo V. and Mata Mata, José L.
Decellularization of pericardial tissue and its impact on tensile viscoelasticity and glycosaminoglycan content.
"Acta Biomaterialia", v. 7
Bovine pericardium is a collagenous tissue commonly used as a natural biomaterial in the fabrication of cardiovascular devices. For tissue engineering purposes, this xenogeneic biomaterial must be decellularized to remove cellular antigens. With this in mind, three decellularization protocols were compared in terms of their effectiveness to extract cellular materials, their effect on glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and, finally, their effect on tensile biomechanical behavior. The tissue decellularization was achieved by treatment with t-octyl phenoxy polyethoxy ethanol (Triton X-100), tridecyl polyethoxy ethanol (ATE) and alkaline treatment and subsequent treatment with nucleases (DNase/RNase). The quantified residual DNA content (3.0 ± 0.4%, 4.4 ± 0.6% and 5.6 ± 0.7% for Triton X-100, ATE and alkaline treatment, respectively) and the absence of nuclear structures (hematoxylin and eosin staining) were indicators of effective cell removal. In the same way, it was found that the native tissue GAG content decreased to 61.6 ± 0.6%, 62.7 ± 1.1% and 88.6 ± 0.2% for Triton X-100, ATE and alkaline treatment, respectively. In addition, an alteration in the tissue stress relaxation characteristics was observed after alkaline treatment. We can conclude that the three decellularization agents preserved the collagen structural network, anisotropy and the tensile modulus, tensile strength and maximum strain at failure of native tissue.