Potencial de recuperación de calor residual de procesos industriales en Alemania con tecnología de ciclo orgánico de Rankine

García Martínez, Laura (2020). Potencial de recuperación de calor residual de procesos industriales en Alemania con tecnología de ciclo orgánico de Rankine. Thesis (Master thesis), E.T.S.I. Industriales (UPM).


Title: Potencial de recuperación de calor residual de procesos industriales en Alemania con tecnología de ciclo orgánico de Rankine
  • García Martínez, Laura
  • Abbas Cámara, Rubén
  • Pili, Roberto
Item Type: Thesis (Master thesis)
Masters title: Ingeniería Industrial
Date: February 2020
Freetext Keywords: Waste heat recovery, Organic Rankine cycle, energy-intensive industries, Ger-many
Faculty: E.T.S.I. Industriales (UPM)
Department: Ingeniería Energética
Creative Commons Licenses: Recognition - No derivative works - Non commercial

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Direct CO2 emissions from industry accounted for 24% of global emissions in 2017, including those from energy consumption and processing . Waste heat recovery with organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems is an increasingly attractive option for a less intensive energy consumption of industrial processes. ORC power systems can convert available waste heat from these processes and produce electricity or electricity and district heat, which can, for example, be used in the same plant reducing its demand. The high waste heat potential from the industrial sector in Germany has not been fully exploited yet . This, together with the acknowledged suitability and good performance of ORC systems makes it interesting to estimate the theoretical, technical and economic potential of this technology recovering heat from energy-intensive industry in Germany. This is the goal of this thesis. There is a lack of studies on the economic potential of waste heat recovery with ORC in the main energy-intensive industries in Germany. Only some estimations on the technical potential are available, but most of them are derived from studies in other countries. The aim of this thesis is, therefore, to provide the researchers and industry with more knowledge about the potential of the WHR technique with ORC power systems and to support its development. The most suitable industries for the installation of ORC systems are steel, cement and glass. Regarding the steel industry, the waste heat from the electric arc furnaces (EAF), the basic oxygen furnaces (BOF) and the reheating furnaces (RHF) is considered. For the cement industry, the heat in the off-gas from preheaters and hot air from clinker coolers at cement dry kilns is regarded. For the glass industry, the melting furnaces for float and container glass are included. To estimate the recovery potential, a combination of the bottom-up and top-down approaches is used. The bottom-up method is used to gather data on the capacity of each plant and to assess the specific waste heat available from each process susceptible of waste heat recovery with an ORC unit. The top-down method is applied for estimating the total waste heat released by each plant, where a common specific waste heat value (which is different depending on the process) is multiplied by the production of each plant. The uncertainty and high variability of the specific waste heat values for the same industrial process led to considering a worst-, average- and best-case scenario. Also, for the estimation of the technical potential, the ORC availability needs to be considered, as well as the ORC unit efficiency. To estimate this efficiency, Turboden WHR-ORC units are considered because they are the global leading company in waste heat recovery applications from industrial processes in both number of installations and capacity. The ORC availability is considered to be 95% and the ORC efficiency varies in the approximate range of 15-21%. For the analysis, a conservative case with an efficiency of 15% and another with 19% are studied. The economic potential is the accumulated electricity that is produced by the ORCs having a lower Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) than the electricity price. The range of electricity prices in 2018 for energy-intensive industries in Germany is in the range of 5.10-17.00 ct/kWh, with average price of 8.84 ct/kWh. For the LCOE calculation, the ORC units’ specific investment costs need to be known. To estimate these costs, a correlation by Turboden which depends on the unit size is used. Also, assumptions regarding the O&M costs are made. The LCOE depends also on the number of amortization years and the interest rate. As an initial assumption, an amortization time of 10 years and an interest rate of 4% are considered for the economic analysis. Then, a sensitivity analysis is made where these parameters are varied in order to evaluate their influence on the economic potential. German industry releases more than 200 TWh in waste heat every year, which is more than the total annual energy consumption of Denmark . The large number of steel, cement and glass factories in Germany produce a significant amount of high-temperature process heat. In addition, these three energy-intensive industries are the ones showing the most developed state-of-the-art on waste heat recovery with ORC in the world, with room for a significative increase in the case of Germany, as shown in this work. The optimistic results obtained from this work, together with the incentives and support programs from the European Union and the German Energy Efficiency Fund (EEF) , make the ORC technology a very attractive option for industrial waste heat recovery. The economic potential grows with the amortization time and decreases with higher interest rates. The economic potential results show promising for all the sectors studied (steel, cement and glass production) for amortization times between 10 and 5 years (except for glass, which is longer) and interest rates smaller than 15% (except for glass, which is lower). The results are especially optimistic for BOF, EAF and cement production. The installation of ORC units for waste heat recovery in the plants where it is economically feasible could save up to 149.22 M€/a and avoid 1.3873 Mt of CO2 emissions per year, which corresponds to 2.13% of the GHG emissions from the industry in Germany in 2018.

More information

Item ID: 57805
DC Identifier: https://oa.upm.es/57805/
OAI Identifier: oai:oa.upm.es:57805
Deposited by: Biblioteca ETSI Industriales
Deposited on: 30 Jan 2020 08:38
Last Modified: 29 Jun 2020 22:30
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