Indirect markers of muscle damage throughout the menstrual cycle

Romero Parra, Nuria and Alfaro Magallanes, Víctor Manuel and Rael Delgado, Beatriz and Cupeiro Coto, Rocío and Rojo Tirado, Miguel Angel and Benito Peinado, Pedro José and Peinado Lozano, Ana Belen (2021). Indirect markers of muscle damage throughout the menstrual cycle. "International Journal of Sports Physiology And Performance", v. 16 (n. 2); pp. 190-198. ISSN 1555-0265.


Title: Indirect markers of muscle damage throughout the menstrual cycle
  • Romero Parra, Nuria
  • Alfaro Magallanes, Víctor Manuel
  • Rael Delgado, Beatriz
  • Cupeiro Coto, Rocío
  • Rojo Tirado, Miguel Angel
  • Benito Peinado, Pedro José
  • Peinado Lozano, Ana Belen
Item Type: Article
Título de Revista/Publicación: International Journal of Sports Physiology And Performance
Date: February 2021
ISSN: 1555-0265
Volume: 16
Freetext Keywords: eccentric exercise; eumenorrheic; female athlete; muscle soreness; perceived exertion
Faculty: Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte (INEF) (UPM)
Department: Salud y Rendimiento Humano
Creative Commons Licenses: Recognition - No derivative works - Non commercial

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Context: The indirect markers of muscle damage have been previously studied in females. However, inconclusive results have been found, possibly explained by the heterogeneity regarding monitoring and verification of menstrual-cycle phase. Purpose: To determine whether the fluctuations in sex hormones during the menstrual cycle influence muscle damage. Methods: A total of 19 well-trained eumenorrheic women (age 28.6 [5.9] y; height 163.4 [6.1] cm; weight 59.6 [5.8] kg body mass) performed an eccentric-based resistance protocol consisting of 10 × 10 back squats at 60% of their 1-repetition maximum on the early follicular phase (EFP), late follicular phase, and midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Range of motion, muscle soreness, countermovement jump, and limb circumferences were evaluated prior to 24 and 48 hours postexercise. Perceived exertion was evaluated after each set. Results: Differences in sex hormones indicated that tests were adequately performed in the different menstrual-cycle phases. Prior to exercise, muscle soreness was higher in the EFP (4.7 [7.7]) than in the late follicular phase (1.1 [3.2]; P = .045). No other variables showed significant differences between phases. Time-point differences (baseline, 24, and 48 h) were observed in knee range of motion (P = .02), muscle soreness, countermovement jump, and between sets for perceived exertion (P < .001). Conclusion: Although the protocol elicited muscle damage, hormonal fluctuations over the menstrual cycle did not seem to affect indirect markers of muscle damage, except for perceived muscle soreness. Muscle soreness was perceived to be more severe before exercise performed in EFP, when estrogen concentrations are relatively low. This may impair women's predisposition to perform strenuous exercise during EFP.

Funding Projects

Government of SpainDEP2016-75387-PIronFEMMEUnspecifiedInfluencia del ciclo menstrual en mujeres deportistas Metabolismo del hierro y daño muscular

More information

Item ID: 65350
DC Identifier:
OAI Identifier:
DOI: 10.1123/ijspp.2019-0727
Official URL:
Deposited by: Memoria Investigacion
Deposited on: 30 Sep 2021 07:59
Last Modified: 30 Sep 2021 07:59
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