Unidimensional model for a particle receiver in a Concentrating Solar Power plant = Modelo unidimensional para un receptor de partículas en una central solar térmica

Soria Alcaide, Víctor (2022). Unidimensional model for a particle receiver in a Concentrating Solar Power plant = Modelo unidimensional para un receptor de partículas en una central solar térmica. Proyecto Fin de Carrera / Trabajo Fin de Grado, E.T.S.I. Industriales (UPM).

Description

Title: Unidimensional model for a particle receiver in a Concentrating Solar Power plant = Modelo unidimensional para un receptor de partículas en una central solar térmica
Author/s:
  • Soria Alcaide, Víctor
Contributor/s:
  • González Portillo, Luis Francisco
Item Type: Final Project
Degree: Grado en Ingeniería en Tecnologías Industriales
Date: July 2022
Subjects:
Freetext Keywords: CSP, solar, renewable, concentrated parameter model, unidimensional model, receiver, particle, efficiency = CSP, solar, renovable, modelo de parámetros concentrados, modelo unidimensional, receptor, partículas, eficiencia
Faculty: E.T.S.I. Industriales (UPM)
Department: Ingeniería Energética
Creative Commons Licenses: Recognition - No derivative works - Non commercial

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Abstract

Concentrating Solar Power is a promising technology for low-carbon renewable generation of electricity. CSP plants are thermal power plants where the solar radiation is the primary source of energy. The sunlight is concentrated by heliostats onto a focus point registering high temperatures. They can provide hours-long energy storage. Among their possible implementations, central tower receiver systems are the best positioned to achieve the US Department of Energy’s goals for 2030. Particle receivers use sand-like ceramic compounds to capture solar energy. They fall through the receiver cavity forming a curtain, which is directly hit by the concentrated sunlight. Their main advantage is they can provide higher outlet temperatures (over 800ºC), thus enabling for high efficiency sCO2-Brayton cycles implementation. A unidimensional concentrated parameter model is proposed for the receiver. The 1D model simplifies the receiver subsystem by only accounting for the falling direction. Its fundamentals are mass, momentum, and energy balances, which are applied to a discrete representation of the curtain of particles. The 1D receiver model is part of a more complex, technoeconomic model of a CSP facility. In this paper, a detailed study of the freefall particle receiver model is performed. The model is compared against CFD simulations of a receiver made by Sandia National Laboratories. The key variable in study is the receiver efficiency: the ratio of energy absorbed by the particles to the energy entering the receiver. First, the model is described, both its analytical backbone and code implementation. Later, it is compared against its CFD counterpart, making energetic and geometric considerations. Then, it is benchmarked against a detailed CFD simulation, to compare the behavior of the particles inside the receiver. After that, a comparison of the receiver efficiency for three different sizes is performed, and issues concerning wind are addressed. Finally, the model is generalized so it can work for any receiver size. The first, detailed benchmark is performed for commercial scale receivers. Despite the geometry simplifications, the 1D model succeeds in replicating the falling velocity of the CFD simulations. However, due to the compromises made, the curtain is denser, more packed in the 1D model. The model fails to calculate the back wall temperature, because the denser curtain does not allow enough radiation to reach the back wall, so its temperature is lower than in CFD simulations. However, the model can accurately calculate the average temperature of the particles at any point of the curtain height. Regarding the efficiency comparison, for simulations where there is no wind, the model achieves excellent correlation coefficients (R2=99,8%). For simulations with wind, the model must be corrected to account for the excess heat loss caused by it. Six different models of wind influence are proposed and compared, with the best one achieving R2=95,8% in the efficiency comparison. The model is finally generalized so it can work for any given size. The correlation coefficient is R2=95,5% in the efficiency comparison. It is concluded that, since the model is suitable for replicating the CFD results, it can be an alternative to estimate a receiver’s behavior in less time and consuming less power than CFD simulations. Its generalization enables for prediction of its behavior for any given size.

More information

Item ID: 70655
DC Identifier: https://oa.upm.es/70655/
OAI Identifier: oai:oa.upm.es:70655
Deposited by: Biblioteca ETSI Industriales
Deposited on: 17 Jul 2022 20:02
Last Modified: 31 Aug 2022 06:06
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