Pesticide applications are still one of the most common control methods against the main olive grove pests and diseases: the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard), the black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier), and the olive leaf spot, caused by the fungus Spilocaea oleagina Fries. However, and because the new pesticide legislation is aimed at an integrated pest and disease management, it is still important to evaluate and to know the ecotoxicology of pesticides on the natural enemies of the different agrosystems. A part of this work has been focusses on evaluating the direct and indirect effects of kaolin particle films and two copper-based products (Bordeaux mixture and copper oxychloride) through different laboratory, extended laboratory and semi-field experiments. Two natural enemies have been chosen: Psyttalia concolor (Szèpligeti), a parasitoid of the olive fruit fly, and Chilocorus nigritus (F.), predator of Diaspididae. This predator has been used instead of C. bipustulatus (L.), which is the species found in olive orchards. Kaolin mainly acts as a repellent of insects and/or as an oviposition deterrent. It is used in olive groves to control the olive fruit fly and the olive moth. Copper is applied against fungal and bacterial diseases. In olive groves it is used against the olive leaf spot and other diseases. No statistical differences were found in any of the experiments performed, compared to the controls, except when the oral toxicity of the products was evaluated on P. concolor females. In this case, kaolin and copper oxychloride caused a higher mortality 72 hours after the treatments, and both kaolin and the two copper formulations decreased females’ life span. Reproductive parameters were only negatively affected when kaolin was ingested. Apart from these experiments, due to the uncommon mode of action of kaolin, two extra experiments were carried out: a dual choice and a no-choice experiment. In this case, both P. concolor females and C. nigritus adults showed a clear preference for the untreated surfaces when they had the possibility of choosing between a treated surface and an untreated one. When there was no choice, no statistical differences were found between the treatments and the controls. Furthermore, the efficacy and the selectivity of three insect growth regulators (methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide and RH-5849) on B. oleae and P. concolor, respectively, have also been evaluated. In addition to laboratory experiments to evaluate the toxicity of the insecticides, also molecular approaches were used. RNA of both insects was isolated. cDNA was subsequently synthesized and the complete sequences of the ligand biding domain (LBD) of the ecdysone receptor of each insect were then determined. Afterwards the three dimensional structures of both LBDs were constructed. Finally, the docking of the insecticide molecules in the cavity delineated by the 12 α-helix that composed the LBD was performed. Both toxicity assays and molecular docking approaches showed that either methoxyfenozide or tebufenozide had no negative effects nor on B. oleae nor on P. concolor. In contrast, RH-5849 had no deleterious effect to the parasitoid but decreased olive fruit fly adults’ life span, especially when they were in contact with the fresh residue of the insecticide applied on a glass surface. The docking study of RH-5849 molecule has shown a very light hindrance with the wall of the LBD pocket. This means that this molecule could more or less adjust in the cavity. Thus, searching of new insecticides for controlling the olive fruit fly could be based on the basic lead structure of RH-5849 molecule.