Search for items in this repository.
The water footprint of olives and olive oil in Spain
Salmoral Portillo, Gloria and Aldaya, Maite M. and Chico Zamanillo, Daniel and Garrido Colmenero, Alberto and Llamas Madurga, Manuel Ramón
The water footprint of olives and olive oil in Spain.
"Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research", v. 9
This paper evaluates the water footprint of Spanish olives and olive oil over the period 1997-2008. In particular, it analyses the three colour components of the water footprint: green (rainwater stored in the soil), blue (surface and groundwater) and grey (freshwater required to assimilate load of pollutants). Apparent water productivity and virtual water embedded in olive oil exports have also been studied. Results show more than 99.5% of the water footprint of one liter of bottled olive oil is related to the olive production, whereas less than 0.5% is due to the other components such as bottle, cap and label. Over the studied period, the green water footprint in absolute terms of Spanish olive oil production represents about 72% in rainfed systems and just 12% in irrigated olive orchards. Blue and grey water footprints represent 6% and 10% of the national water footprint, respectively. It is shown that olive production is concentrated in regions with the smallest water footprint per unit of product. However, the increase of groundwater consumption in the main olive producing region (Andalusia), from 98 to 378 Mm3 between 1997 and 2008, has added significant pressure in the upstream Guadalquivir basin. This raises questions about the sustainability of irrigated olive orchards for export from the region. Finally, the virtual water related to olive oil exports illustrate the importance of green water footprint of rainfed olives amounting to about 77% of the total virtual water exports.
Check whether the anglo-saxon journal in which you have published an article allows you to also publish it under open access.
Check whether the spanish journal in which you have published an article allows you to also publish it under open access.