Bermejo Castro, Mario and Goicolea Ruigómez, José María and Gabaldón Castillo, Felipe and Santos Yanguas, Anastasio Pedro
Impact And Explosive Loads On Concrete Buildings Using Shell And Beam Type Elements.
In: "3rd International Conference on Computational Methods In Structural Synamics & Earthquake Engineering - COMPDYN 2011", 25/05/2011 - 28/05/2011, Corfú, Grecia.
The threat of impact or explosive loads is regrettably a scenario to be taken into account in the design of lifeline or critical civilian buildings. These are often made of concrete and not specifically designed for military threats. Numerical simulation of such cases may be undertaken with the aid of state of the art explicit dynamic codes, however several difficult challenges are inherent to such models: the material modeling for the concrete anisotropic failure, consideration of reinforcement bars and important structural details, adequate modeling of pressure waves from explosions in complex geometries, and efficient solution to models of complete buildings which can realistically assess failure modes. In this work we employ LS-Dyna for calculation, with Lagrangian finite elements and explicit time integration. Reinforced concrete may be represented in a fairly accurate fashion with recent models such as CSCM model  and segregated rebars constrained within the continuum mesh. However, such models cannot be realistically employed for complete models of large buildings, due to limitations of time and computer resources. The use of structural beam and shell elements for this purpose would be the obvious solution, with much lower computational cost. However, this modeling requires careful calibration in order to reproduce adequately the highly nonlinear response of structural concrete members, including bending with and without compression, cracking or plastic crushing, plastic deformation of reinforcement, erosion of vanished elements etc. The main objective of this work is to provide a strategy for modeling such scenarios based on structural elements, using available material models for structural elements  and techniques to include the reinforcement in a realistic way. These models are calibrated against fully three-dimensional models and shown to be accurate enough. At the same time they provide the basis for realistic simulation of impact and explosion on full-scale buildings