Palmero Llamas, Daniel and Cara Garcia, Miguel de and Iglesias Gonzalez, Concepcion and Ruíz López, Gabriel and Tello Marquina, Julio
Effects of water potential on spore germination and viability of Fusarium species.
"Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology", v. 35
Germination of macroconidia and/or microconidia of 24 strains of Fusarium solani, F. chlamydosporum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. verticillioides, F. sambucinum, F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum isolated from fluvial channels and sea beds of the south-eastern coast of Spain, and three control strains (F. oxysporum isolated from affected cultures) was studied in distilled water in response to a range of water potentials adjusted with NaCI. (0, -13.79, -41.79, -70.37, -99.56 and -144.54 bars). The vialibility (UFC/ml) of suspension was also tested in three time periods (0,24 and 48h). Conidia always germinated in distilled water. The pattern of conidial germination obseved of F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. chlamydosporum and F. culmorum was similar. A great diminution of spore germination was found in -13.79 bars solutions. Spore germination percentage for F. solani isolates was maximal at 48 h. and -13.79 bars with 21.33% spore germination, 16% higher than germination in distilled water. F. equiseti shows the maximum germination percentage in -144.54 bars solution in 24 h time with 12.36% germination. These results did not agree with those obtained in the viability test where maximum germination was found in distilled water. The viability analysis showed the great capacity of F. verticilloides strains to form viable colonies, even in such extreme conditions as -144,54 bars after 24 h F. proliferatum colony formation was prevented in the range of -70.37 bars. These results show the clear affectation of water potential to conidia germination of Fusaria. The ability of certain species of Fusarium to develop a saprophytic life in the salt water of the Mediterraneam Sea could be certain. Successful germination, even under high salty media conditions, suggests taht Fusarium spp. could have a competitive advantage over other soil fungi in crops irrigated with saline water. In the specific case of F. solani, water potential of -13.79 bars affected germination positively. It could indicate that F. solani has an special physiological mechanism of survival in low water potential environments.