Influence of castration on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of heavy female pigs

Peinado del Pino, Javier (2015). Influence of castration on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of heavy female pigs. Tesis (Doctoral), E.T.S.I. Agrónomos (UPM) [antigua denominación].

Descripción

Título: Influence of castration on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of heavy female pigs
Autor/es:
  • Peinado del Pino, Javier
Director/es:
  • Gonzáles Mateos, Gonzalo
  • Medel de la Torre, Pedro
Tipo de Documento: Tesis (Doctoral)
Fecha: 2015
Materias:
Escuela: E.T.S.I. Agrónomos (UPM) [antigua denominación]
Departamento: Producción Animal [hasta 2014]
Licencias Creative Commons: Reconocimiento - Sin obra derivada - No comercial

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Resumen

The main objetive of this Doctoral Thesis was to study the influence of female castration and pig sex on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of white pigs slaughtered at different final weights. Three experiments (Exp.) were conducted. In Exp. 1, a total of 200 (Landrace * Large White dam x Pietrain * Large White sire) gilts of 50 ± 3 days of age (23.3 ± 1.47 kg BW) was used to investigate the effects of castration (intact females, IF vs. castrated feamles, CF) and slaughter weight (106 vs. 122 kg BW) on productive performance and carcass and meat quality. There were four experimental treatments arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial and 5 replicates of 10 pigs each per treatment. Half of the gilts were ovariectomized at 58 d of age (8 days after the beginning of the trial; 29.8 ± 1.64 kg BW) whereas the other half remained intact. Meat samples were taken at m. Longissimus thoracis at the level of the last rib and subcutaneous fat samples were taken at the tail insertion. For the entire experiment period, CF had higher BW gain (P<0.05) and backfat and m. Gluteus medius (GM) fat thickness (P<0.001) than IF. However, IF had higher loin and trimmed primal cut yields (P<0.05) than CF. Meat quality was similar for IF and CF but the proportion of linoleic acid in subcutaneous fat was higher (P<0.001) for IF. Pigs slaughtered at 122 kg BW had higher (P<0.001) feed intake and poorer feed efficiency than pigs slaughtered at 106 kg BW. An increase in slaughter weight (SW) improved (P<0.001) carcass yield but decreased (P<0.05) trimmed primal cut yield. Meat from females slaughtered at the heavier BW was redder (a*; P<0.001) and had more (P<0.01) intramuscular fat and less thawing (P<0.05) and cooking (P<0.10) loss than meat from females slaughtered at the lighter BW. Also, females slaughtered at 122 kg BW had less (P<0.01) linoleic acid content in the subcutaneous fat than pigs slaughtered at 106 kg BW. Castration of gilts and slaughtering at heavier BW might be useful practices for the production of heavy pigs destined to the dry cured industry in which a certain amount of fat in the carcass is required. In contrast, when the carcasses are destined to fresh meat production, IF slaughtered at 106 kg BW are a more efficient alternative. In Exp. 2, crossbred pigs (n=240) from Pietrain*Large White sires mated to Landrace*Large White dams with an average of 100 d of age (60.5 ± 2.3 kg) were used to investigate the effects of gender and slaughter weight (SW) on growth performance and carcass and meat quality characteristics. There were 6 treatments arranged factorially with 3 genders (IF vs. CF vs.castrated males, CM) and 2 SW (114 vs. 122 kg BW). Each of the 6 combinations of treatments was replicated 4 times and the experimental unit was a pen with 10 pigs. Castrated males and CF ate more feed, grew faster and had more carcass backfat depth and fat thickness at the GM muscle, but lower loin yield than IF (P<0.05). In addition, CF and CM had more intramuscular fat (P<0.05) and less linoleic acid content in the subcutaneous fat (P<0.01) than IF. Pigs slaughtered at 122 kg BW had lower ADG (P<0.05), poor gain-to-feed ratio (P<0.05), and more GM fat than pigs slaughtered at 114 kg BW (P < 0.05). It is concluded that CF and CM had similar productive performance and meat quality characteristics when slaughtered at the same age, and that the castration of females improved daily gains and increased weight and fat content of primal cuts with respect to IF. Therefore, castration of females is recommended in pigs destined to the dry-cured industry because of the beneficial effects on the quality of the primal cuts. In Exp. 3, the effects of gender and castration of females (IF vs. CF vs. CM) on performance and carcass and meat quality were studied in crossbred pigs (Landrace x Large White dams x Duroc sires) slaughtered at 119.2 (trial 1) or 131.6 (trial 2) kg BW. Intact females had better feed conversion and less carcass fat than CF and CM. Trimmed shoulder yield was higher for CM than for CF with IF being intermediate. Primal cut yield and meat quality, however were similar for all treatments. Proportion of linoleic acid in backfat was lower for CF than for IF or CM, and the differences were significant in pigs slaughtered witn 131.6 kg BW. The higher fat content and the fatty acid profile favour the use of CF and CM over IF for the production of heavy pigs destined to the dry-cured industry.

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Identificador OAI: oai:oa.upm.es:39802
Depositado por: Archivo Digital UPM 2
Depositado el: 13 Abr 2016 10:39
Ultima Modificación: 13 Nov 2016 23:30
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