Survival of lichens and bacteria exposed to outer space conditions - Results of the Lithopanspermia experiments

Torre, Rosa de la and Sancho, Leopoldo G. and Horneck, Gerda and Rios, Asuncion de los and Wierzchos, Jacek and Olsson-Francis, Kalsen and Cockell, Charles S. and Rettberg, Petra and Berger, Thomas and Vera, Jean-Pierre P. de and Ott, Sieglinde and Martinez Frias, Jesus and Gonzalez-Melendi de Leon, Pablo and Mercedes Lucas, Maria and Reina, Manuel and Pintado, Ana and Demets, Rene (2010). Survival of lichens and bacteria exposed to outer space conditions - Results of the Lithopanspermia experiments. "Icarus", v. 208 (n. 2); pp. 735-748. ISSN 0019-1035. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2010.03.010.

Description

Title: Survival of lichens and bacteria exposed to outer space conditions - Results of the Lithopanspermia experiments
Author/s:
  • Torre, Rosa de la
  • Sancho, Leopoldo G.
  • Horneck, Gerda
  • Rios, Asuncion de los
  • Wierzchos, Jacek
  • Olsson-Francis, Kalsen
  • Cockell, Charles S.
  • Rettberg, Petra
  • Berger, Thomas
  • Vera, Jean-Pierre P. de
  • Ott, Sieglinde
  • Martinez Frias, Jesus
  • Gonzalez-Melendi de Leon, Pablo
  • Mercedes Lucas, Maria
  • Reina, Manuel
  • Pintado, Ana
  • Demets, Rene
Item Type: Article
Título de Revista/Publicación: Icarus
Date: August 2010
ISSN: 0019-1035
Volume: 208
Subjects:
Freetext Keywords: Astrobiology; Exobiology; Meteorites; Solar radiation
Faculty: Centro de Investigación en Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas (CBGP) (UPM)
Department: Biotecnologia [hasta 2014]
Creative Commons Licenses: Recognition - No derivative works - Non commercial

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Abstract

n the space experiments Lithopanspermia, experimental support was provided to the likelihood of the lithopanspermia concept that considers a viable transport of microorganisms between the terrestrial planets by means of meteorites. The rock colonising lichens Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, the vagrant lichen Aspicilia fruticulosa, and endolithic and endoevaporitic communities of cyanobacteria and bacteria with their natural rock substrate were exposed to space for 10 days onboard the Biopan facility of the European Space Agency (ESA). Biopan was closed during launch and re-entry. In addition, in the Stone facility, one sample of R. geographicum on its natural granitic substrate was attached at the outer surface of the re-entry capsule close to the stagnation point, only protected by a thin cover of glass textolite. Post-flight analysis, which included determination of the photosynthetic activity, LIVE/DEAD staining, and germination capacity of the ascospores, demonstrated that all three lichen were quite resistant to outer space conditions, which include the full spectrum of solar extraterrestrial electromagnetic radiation or selected wavelength ranges. This high resistance of the lichens to space appears to be due to their symbiotic nature and protection by their upper pigmented layer, the cortex. In contrast, the rock- or halite-inhabiting bacteria were severely damaged by the same exposure. After atmospheric re-entry, the granite of the Stone sample was transformed into a glassy, nearly homogenous material, with several friction striae. None of the lichen cells survived this re-entry process. The data suggest that lichens are suitable candidates for testing the concept of lithopanspermia, because they are extremely resistant to the harsh environment of outer space. The more critical event is the atmospheric re-entry after being captured by a planet. Experiments simulating the re-entry process of a microbe-carrying meteoroid did not show any survivors.

More information

Item ID: 7093
DC Identifier: http://oa.upm.es/7093/
OAI Identifier: oai:oa.upm.es:7093
DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2010.03.010
Official URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00191035
Deposited by: Memoria Investigacion
Deposited on: 24 May 2011 11:07
Last Modified: 20 Apr 2016 16:12
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